The ST-Sim software uses a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM) approach to forecast landscape dynamics, including projecting changes in both vegetation and land use. Because the STSM method is inherently stochastic, it is well suited for characterizing uncertainty in model projections.
STSMs have been applied to a wide range of landscapes and management questions, including forests, rangelands, grasslands, wetlands, aquatic communities and urban areas, over spatial extents ranging from thousands to millions of hectares. Additional details on the STSM approach can be found in the paper by Daniel et al (2016) (also summarized in a 13 minute video). The integration of STSMs with models of continuous variables, such as biomass and carbon, can be found in a second paper by Daniel et al (2017).